Posted by Marilyn Barbera on 06 MAY 2004 20:03:24
Recommend 2 web sites. First, a 19th century map of Italy relative to the war for the Unification of Italy that shows the route taken by Garibaldi's soldiers. They sailed south from Genoa (Peidmont) and entered Marsala, Sicily on May 11, 1860 and marched to Palermo, conquered Sicily, and then Naples.In 1861 Sicily and Naples voted to join what was to be the Kingdom of Italy. One account says t hat from 1861 to 1865 "half of the army of the new Kingdom of Italy is needed to supress rebellions there. More people die in this "civil war" than in all the other wars of the Risorgimento combined." ( The war for Unification is referred to as the Risorgimento" which means "revival.") View the map and chronology at http://www.roangelo.net/valente/garibald.html.A second web site gives a m ore detailed account of events and time lines, along with photographs of the major political players: Mazzini, Cavour, and Garibaldi. It is no wonder that people in Ustica that had family and friends i n other countries left, rather than participating in the blood shead and uprisings. http://www.arcaini.com/ITALY/ItalyHistory/ItalianUnification.htmThis account states that "during the 18th century, intellectual changes began to dismantle traditional values and institutions. Liberal ideas from France and England spread rapidly, and from 1789 the French Revolution became the genesis of "liberal Italians." A series of political and military events resulted in a unified Kingdom of Italy in 1861."Reports indicate that additional areas up and down the peninsula had to be taken by force including Venice and sections of the Papal States and it wasn't until approximately the late 1860's to 1870 that all of the territory that is Italy today became unified and/or a republic. Poverty which was not helped by the government limited the prospects of survival in the southern areas, while here in New Orleans after the civil war (1865) opportunities were numerous. Likewise there was a boom in the San Francisco/San Jose California area as time went on. Thanks to the Usticesi Mariners that worked on ships going to and from foreign ports, such as New Orleans before 1860; these men established contacts and found accomodations and occupations for their families and friends hoping to find a better future. During the following decades ship lists indicate continued immigration to Louisiana. (I am not familiar with ship lists of passengers arriving at San Francisco. We do know that Ustecesi and/or their children left New Orleans after being here awhile and moved to San Jose and San Francisco, possibly by train or ship. Later when automobiles were available some went by car. If anyone has any information about the immigration from New Orleans to San Francisco and San Jose, please follow up .